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Thursday, June 30, 2011
ADVANCED METHODS OF BIRTH CONTROLS
There are 3 forms of birth control viz prevention offertilization, prevention of implantation and abortion. However out of the methods yet available, only a few score high in popularity due to the displeasure they might cause. Several forms of latest birth control methods are in pipeline which would be more effective and easier to use. While some women’s products are in development, the real future of birth control is men to control the massive sperm army unleashed. Contraceptives for guys could help women avoid the side-effects of hormonal pills and give men more control over their fertility. Here is preliminary showing into the future of contraception.
The SILCS diaphragm is a silicone barrier contraceptive device which is inserted vaginally to cover the cervix. Its dome is filled with BufferGel that acts both as a
spermicide and microbicide that not only immobilizes the sperms but also kills them and
fights infections. It functions identically to a normal contraceptive diaphragm, but avoids
the need for many sizes and a pelvic exam for a correct fit; it is designed as a “one size fits most” device. The designers of the device relied heavily on results from studies of current and former diaphragm users and clinicians to improve acceptability and satisfaction. Women are evaluating the new device for comfort and ease-of-use in
studies, underway in the Dominican Republic, South Africa,Thailand, and the United
Dissolvable Contraceptive Implants
Implants are the newest entrants into the female contraceptive market.These small rods, once inserted under the skin, release a progestin hormone over a couple of years.The hormone stops fertilization by thickening cervical mucus and preventing ovulation.The implant can be removed when women opt out of birth control. Scientists are developing future implants that would not require a surgical removal. Biodegradable implants like Capnor that dissolve after a certain period of time will soon hit the shelves of pharmacies world over.
Hydrothermal Male Control
Sperm are best produced at a temperature slightly below body temperature. The muscles around a male’s scrotum involuntarily tighten if the man’s body temperature drops, and they loosen, allowing the testes to hang, if the body temperature rises. This is the body’s way of keeping the sperm at an ideal temperature. Limited research has shown that raising the temperature of the scrotum above body temperature, even for short periods of time, can affect fertility for months.An experimental male contraceptive method involves heating the testicles so that they cannot produce sperm. Methods used include hot water applied to the scrotum, heat generated by ultrasound, and artificial cryptorchidism (holding the testicles inside the abdomen) using specialized briefs. Initial experiments suggest it is effective, safe, and reversible, though there have not been long-term studies to determine if it has any side effects on the body or quality of sperm after reversal.The optimal heat level and time period of exposure are not known.The method has a long history in Middle Eastern countries, particularly Turkey.
It seems that sperm have become the martyrs for a glorious future of contraceptives.
They are now being attacked at vas deferens (the route used to transport sperm from the testes to the penis). While a vasectomy cuts off the vas deferens, future vas-based contraceptive methods do only a temporary job. One such procedure undergoing clinical trials is RISUG or Reversible Inhibition of Sperm under Guidance The method involves a polymer that, when put into the vas, kills the sperm. Men can get the polymer flushed out after they decide to stop using birth control
Efforts are being made to develop a miracle shot that will prevent pregnancy.The vaccine would select certain targets in human reproductive system that are open to
interference with antibodies. The basic targets have been FSH hormone in men and HcG in women. The vaccines are supposed to wear off in a year. So far, CV has not emerged as a stable and effective method for birth control. Scientists are also wary of potential side effects like auto-immune diseases and allergies.
Dry Orgasm Pills
Doctors have known since the 1950s that a couple of medications, usually taken for
high blood pressure and schizophrenia, could also make male patients sterile.In November 2006, researchers figured out why: Both medications freeze the muscle contractions that propel sperm through the male reproductive tract. The result: A normal orgasm, sans sperm. Work is underway to turn this discovery into a marketable pill, but it’s still a long way off.
Knowing about human fascination with sprays, it’s not surprising that researchers are
developing contraceptive squirt bottles.The spray,laced with a type of progestogen,is applied daily on the forearm where it passes on to the bloodstream.The idea is to offer women a convenient option with smaller doses of contraceptive drugs.The clinical trials have shown that sprays, unlike pills, have decreased side effects like breast tenderness, blood clots and water retention.
The male Patch
Adjudin is a drug which is under development as a potential non-hormonal male contraceptive drug, which acts by blocking the maturation of sperm in the testes, but
without affecting testosterone production. In experiments hormonal levels (FSH, LH,
testosterone) were undisturbed during administration, and normal spermatogenesis
returned in 95% of the tubules of rats at 210 days after the drug had been discontinued. The oral dose effective for contraception is so high that there have been side effects in the muscles and liver, therefore the drug is being manufactured as implant or patch for males.
Anti Fertility or the Contraceptive vaccines (CVs) may provide viable and valuable alternatives that can fulfill most, if not all, properties of an ideal contraceptive. Since both the developed and most of the developing nations have an infrastructure for mass immunisation, the development of vaccines for contraception is an excitin gproposition. The molecules that are being explored for CV development either target gamete production (GRH, FSH and LH), gamete function (ZP) or gamete outcome (hCG) Disadvantages of CVs targeting gamete production are that they affect sex steroids and/ or show only a partial effect in reducing fertility.
The Male Pill
A pill that can control the massive sperm army unleashed by men has existed as a
feasible birth control option for many decades. Yet, the development of the male pill has still been painfully slow. Scientists initially had to fight the idea that men would never use a hormonal pill. There has been a gradual shift; maybe celeb paternity suits brought a change in perspective. Male hormonal contraceptive is finally ready and being tested in the US, Europe and China. This birth control method uses testosterone,and sometimes progesterone, to stop sperm production. The reversible hormonal male contraceptive would also be available as patches, gels, implants and even injections.